• Faculty Teaching Excellence Award, NUS
  • Fulbright Visiting Research Grant (U.S. Department of State)
    Visiting Fulbright Fellow at the University of California (Berkeley)
  • Commonwealth Scholarship and Fellowship Plan
    Association of Commonwealth Universities, United Kingdom
  • Wee Kheng Chiang Memorial Scholarship
    National University of Singapore

Past positions and duties:

August 2015-December 2015 Visiting Associate Professor, Department of English, Chinese University of Hong Kong

Scientific Committee member, International Conference on Corpus Linguistics and Technology Advancement (COLTA)

Programme Committee member, Corpus Linguistics 2015

Scientific Committee member, eLex 2015: Electronic Lexicography in the 21st Century

Assistant Dean (External Relations and Student Life), Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (July 2010-December 2014)

Vice-Chairman, Academic Board, NUS Extension

Scientific Committee member, eLex 2013: electronic lexicography in the 21st century

Senior Visiting Fellow, School of Languages and LinguisticsUniversity of New South Wales; Visiting Fellow, The Halliday Centre for Intelligent Applications of Language StudiesCity University of Hong Kong

Honorary Secretary, Fulbright Association (Singapore)

Honorary Treasurer, Fulbright Association (Singapore)

Honorary General Secretary, Asian Association for Lexicography, 2005

Honorary Treasurer, ASIALEX2005

Assistant Dean, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (2003-2004)

Assistant Secretary, Fulbright Association (Singapore)

Coordinator, Information Technology UnitFASS

Paper reviewer, Scientific Commissions on Lexicology & Lexicography, IT, Internet and Language Learning, 13th World Congress of Linguists (AILA 2002).

Visiting Research Fellow, Centre for Advanced Research in English/Centre for Corpus LinguisticsUniversity of Birmingham; Visiting Scholar, Department of LinguisticsUC Berkeley; Visitor (FrameNet project), International Computer Science Institute, Berkeley; and Visiting Research Fellow, Australian National Dictionary CentreAustralian National University

Coordinator, Department's Resources Group; Department Web Manager; Member, Dept Language Research Group; Member, Dept Library Committee

Deputy Director, Centre for Advanced Studies

Honorary Treasurer: i)  The 26th Systemic Congress and Institute; ii) 4th International Conference on World Englishes; iii) Singapore Association for Applied Linguistics

Co-Chairman of the Faculty IT Committee

Assistant Director, Master in Public Policy Programme, National University of Singapore

Member, IT Committee, National University of Singapore

Assistant Director, Centre for Advanced Studies, National University of Singapore

Secretary, Faculty of Arts & Social Sciences' Social Committee, National University of Singapore
























Lectures and Tutorials conducted

Currrent Modules

  • Lexicology and Lexicography (advanced undergraduate level)

  • Language and the Internet (undergraduate level)

  • Corpus Linguistics (graduate level)

  • Standard English  across Cultures (General Education Module)

Past Modules

  • Computers, Corpora, and the World Wide Web

  • Investigating Standard English

  • Computers and Language Studies

  • Hypertext Theory: Writing in the Electronic Era

  • The Nature of Language

  • Computational Linguistics

  • Computers and the Analysis of English Texts

  • Semantics

  • Academic Reading and Writing for Research

  • Varieties of Written and Spoken English

  • Analysing English

  • Introduction to the Structure of English

(Advanced)Undergraduate Projects/Honours Theses supervised

Successful theses, dissertations, independent projects / by the following students:

Evaluative Language in Singapore Food Review Blogs / Amos Ghui [Honours thesis]
'Tone it Up': A Corpus-based Analysis of Women Fitness Blogs / Charis Lim Yan Qing [Honours thesis]
'Anabuddy there?': Support and Motivation on Instagram / Nurul Afiqah [Honours thesis]
'First Impressions Last': A Corpus-based Study of NUS MA/PhD Abstracts across Disciplines / Timothy Ong Jun Wei [Honours thesis]
'Manage Your Stress': Examining the Discourse of Health Organisations in Singapore / Jonathan Tan Chu Chze [Honours thesis]
Competition or Cooperation?: The Case of 'Have to' and 'Must' in Philippine English / Rowland Sibugan Imperial [Honours thesis]
'We Want You': The Language of Online Recruitment Advertising in Singapore / Melcher Tan Chun Kiat [Honours thesis]
A Corpus-based Analysis of Love Confessions on Facebook / Tan Yun Yin [Honours thesis]
A Corpus-Linguistic Approach to Analysing Local Food Blogs / Tong Ming Yan [Honours thesis]
A Corpus-based Approach to Student Testimonial Letters / Daniel Lim Meng Hui [Honours thesis]
Why u write lyk dat?: Singapore English on Facebook / Nurulhuda Borhan Said [Honours ISM]
Unspeakable Connections: Lexical Relations in Taboo and Player Strategies / Lo Wanni [Honours thesis]
Electronic Gaming as a Genre / Bai Shuping [Honours ISM]
Uncovering Cross-Cultural Norms of Netspeak in Windows Live Messenger / Cheryl Ng Xin Yi [USP Honours ISM]
Politeness in Online Instant Messaging / by Jasmine Ong Peishan [Honours ISM]
Defining English Words in Singapore / by Kwok Boon Yong [Honours ISM]
Context of Situation for Lectal Switch / by Lin Sum Yi [Honours ISM]
CMC Features In English Personal Blogs by Singaporean Teens / by Chan Yoke Hian [Honours thesis]
A Corpus-based Study of a Virtual Reality Pet Community / by Cai Yi Tian [Honours thesis]
Investigating Gendered Differences in Computer-Mediated Communication from a Singapore Perspective / by Geraldine Tan Wei Lin [Honours thesis]
Towards a Fairer Representation of The ESL/EFL User's Socio-Linguistic Reality in the English Dictionary / by Jasmine Tan Ying Ling [Honours thesis]
Linguistic Aspects of Electronic Games on The Web / by Joseph Kiong Chin Fong [Honours thesis]
Challenging Orthodoxy : A Linguistic Analysis of Subversive Texts on the Web / by Ivan Yap Shing Loong [Honours thesis]
A Genre Analysis of Christian Online Devotionals / by Amy Luisita [Honours thesis]
The Language of Insults among Singaporean Teenagers / by Lucinda Seah Kar Hui [Honours thesis]
An Analysis of The Art of Being "Woody Allen" / by Choong Choon Yee [Honours thesis]
A Genre Analysis of Infomercials / by Martin Chew Soon Chiang [Honours thesis
Ideology in The Newspapers : The Singapore-Malaysia Relationship / by Wendy Woo Yen Hsia [Honours thesis]
Investigating the Language Of Prince / by Tan Ping Chuen [Honours thesis]
Deriving Singapore Culture from Computer Corpora / by Lee Keh Yi [Honours thesis]
A Corpus-Based Perspective to Language Studies / Lim Hang Kok  [Honours thesis, joint supervision with Department of Japanese Studies]
Linguistic Strategies in The Pyramid Game / by Kelly Koh Ben Lin [Honours thesis]
Questions for Tapestry : An English Analyzer for Interrogative Sentences / by Liaw Wy-Cin [Honours thesis]
Towards a Computerized Lexis of Singapore English / by Annie Tan [Honours thesis]

Research Areas

    • Corpus linguistics
    • Lexicology and lexicography (Theory and practice of the lexicon)
    • Computer-mediated communication
    • Newer Varieties of English
    • General and applied linguistics.


Invited Symposia/Conferences

    2020. Invited plenary, The 6th International Conference of the Linguistic Association of Pakistan, ICLAP2020 (19-21 November, 2020)

    2018. Invited keynote, The 2rd International Conference of the African Association for Lexicography, 27-29 June, 2018, The University of Western Cape, Capetown, South Africa.

    2017. Invited keynote, International Symposium on English Language Teaching (Theme: Reading Strategies, Writing Tools, and 'Standard English'), Department of Applied English, Tainan University of Technology, Tainan (19 May 2017).

    2016. Invited plenary, The 10th International Conference of the Asian Association for Lexicography (ASIALEX 2016), Manila (1-3 June 2016)

    2015. Invited keynote, International Symposium on Corpus Linguistics: New Perspectives, New Challenges, Tianjin University of Science and Technology (29-30 June 2015)

    2013. Invited plenary, International Symposium on Learner Corpus Studies in Asia and the World (LCSAW)

    2012. Invited keynote, International Symposium on English Teaching (Theme: Corpora, E-Learning and ESP), Tainan University of Technology (26 May 2012)

    2012. Invited keynote,  International Language Education Conference (Theme: Language Education -- Application and Reflection),Transworld University (24-25 May 2012)

    2010. Invited keynote, International Symposium on English Teaching, Tainan University of Technology (16 October 2010).

    2010. Invited keynote, The First RI (RJC) ELL Symposium on Change and Variation in the English Language, Raffles Institution (8 October 2010).

    2008. Invited plenary, The First International Symposium on Lexicography and L2 Teaching & Learning, Center for Lexicographical Studies, Guangdong University of Foreign Studies.

    2008. Invited plenary, The First International Symposium on Corpus and Variation In Linguistic Description And Language Education, Tokyo University of Foreign Studies (TUFS).

    2007. Invited plenary, Symposium on Discourse in Multilingual and Multicultural Contexts, University of Malaya (29 to 30 Nov, 2007).

Graduate Supervision

    Successful theses and dissertations / by the following students:

    The Gulf of Mexico Oil Spill: A Corpus-based Study of Metaphors in British and American Discourse / Tommie Chen Siong Chuk [PhD]

    A Corpus-based Contrastive Analysis of Sadness Expressions in English and Chinese / Zhang Ruihua [PhD]

    Linguistic Variation and Identity Representation in Personal Blogs: A Corpus-linguistic Approach / Gong Wengao [Ph.D.]

    A Corpus-based Study of Educational Discourse - the SCoRE Approach / Hong Huaqing [Ph.D.]

    Annotating Singapore English / by Chong Teng Yuan [M.A. dissertation]

    The Language of 'Seeking': Asian Web-based Personal Ads / by Sunit Singh [M.A.dissertation]

    A Corpus-based Study of Lexical Behaviour in Chinese Learner English / by Lu Yuanwen [Ph.D.]

    The Taiwan Issue in the Media : A Corpus-Based Comparative Study of Chinese and American Media Discourse / by Lu Xiaofei [M.A. dissertation]

    Linguistic Analysis of Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP) / by Raina Chua Boon Kiat [M.A. dissertation]

    A Linguistic Analysis of The Computer Times / by Wong Chin Yeow [M.A. dissertation]

    Love @ Cyberspace : A Corpus-Based Study Of Personal Ads on the Web / by Mohammad Akshir Kadir [M.A. dissertation]

    The Language of Aids : The Representation ff HIV/AIDS in Medical Texts / by Doreen Liow Yee Ling [M.A. dissertation]

    A Corpus-Based Study of SM Lee's Speeches / by Vivien Ler Soon Lay [M.A. dissertation]

    Lexical Combinations in Singapore English / by Kusuma De Silva [M.A. dissertation]

    A Genre Analysis of Local Children's Stories / by Janet George [M.A. dissertation]

    Word-Processing in Revision Strategies and Behaviours : A Writing Programme for Diploma in Nursing S / by Wilna Thang Eng Fung [M.A. dissertation]

    An Investigation of English Bible Translators' Styles in The Psalms / by Joseph Ng [M.A. dissertation]

Research articles

2022. (together with A. Inoue, K. Nam, C.L. Zhao) Aspects of multiword expressions in Asian lexicography. In Jackson, H. (ed) The Bloomsbury Handbook of Lexicography. London: Bloomsbury Academic. pp.309-324.

2021. Issues and prospects for incorporating English use in Japan into the dictionary, Asian Englishes, 23:1, 62-78, DOI: 10.1080/13488678.2021.1876952

2018. Lexicography and World Englishes, in Low E L and A Pakir (eds) World Englishes: Rethinking Paradigms (Routledge Studies in World Englishes series), London: Routledge, pp. 165-182.

2018. Using the Web for lexicographic purposes, in Fuertes-Olivera P (ed) Routledge Handbook of Lexicography (Routledge Handbooks in Linguistics series), London: Routledge, pp. 684-700.

2017a. A corpus-based linguistic profiling of marine humanities discourse, Journal of Global and Area Studies, Vol. 1., No. 2, 83-109.

2017b. Re-examining the Big 5 English learner dictionaries for semantic prosody, in ASIALEX2017: The 11th Conference of the Asian Association for Lexicography, Guangzhou.

2016. A corpus linguistic analysis of marine ecosystem terms in the GloWbe corpus, Trans-Pacific International Conference, Busan: Pukyong University, 311-323.

2016. Lexical priming, dictionaries and Asian users of English, in Dita S and W Gonzales (eds) ASIALEX2016: The 10th Conference of the Asian Association for Lexicography, Manila, pp. 1-13.

2015.   Icon A dictionary of Hong Kong English vs the GloWbe corpus? Triangulating sources of lexicographic evidence (1.0 MB) in L Li, J McKeown and L Liu (eds) ASIALEX2015: The 9th Conference of the Asian Association for Lexicography, Hong Kong, pp.80-89.

2015.  Icon Examining the GloWbe corpus as a lexicographic resource for Singapore, Malaysian and Hong Kong English (89.3 KB) , in CILC2015: The 7th International Conference on Corpus Linguistics, 5-7 March, Valladolid, Spain, 93-94.

2014. Examining learner strategies in a Facebook corpus of lexical priming, in Qian D and L Li (eds) Teaching and Learning English in East Asian Universities: Global Visions and Local Practices, UK: Cambridge Scholars, 209-224.

(with P K W Tan) 2013/4. Facebook, linguistic identity and hybridity in Singapore, in Rubdy R and Alsagoff A (eds) The Global-Local Interface and Hybridity: Exploring Language and Identity, Multilingual Matters, 225-244. 

2013. Semantically profiling and word sketching the Singapore ICNALE Corpus, the 7th International Corpus Linguistics Conference (CL2013), UK: Lancaster University, 23-26 July 2013, 230-233.

2013. Lexical priming and Asian learners of English, in Ishikawa S (ed) Learner Corpus Studies in Asia and the World Vol 1, School of Languages and Communication, Kobe University, 31-41.

2013. Branding Singapore through Singapore(an) English?, in Commentary (Journal of the National University of Singapore Society), Vol.22, 41-48.

English Internet lexicography and online dictionaries, in Lexicographica 26. Berlin: de Gruyter, 143-154.

Entry on 'Singaporean English'Collins Dictionary of the English Language. United Kingdom: Collins Language/HarperCollins, 221.

Wmatrix and the language of electronic gaming, the 5th Corpus Linguistics Conference, Liverpool, United Kingdom.

Computer-mediated language and corpus linguistics, in Kawaguchi Y, M Minegishi and J Durand (eds) Corpus Analysis and Variation in LinguisticsAmsterdam: John Benjamins, 103-120.

Computer-mediated language and corpus linguistics, in Kawaguchi Y, M Minegishi and J Durand (eds) International Symposium on Corpus and Variation in Linguistic Description and Language Education. (Studies in Corpus-based Linguistics and Language Education I Series). Tokyo: Tokyo University of Foreign Studies, 103-120.

The lexis of electronic gaming on the Web: a Sinclairian approach, International Journal of Lexicography21 (3), 311-323.

(with Wengao Gong) Innovations and motivations in online chat, in  Kelsey S and K St. Amant (eds) Handbook of Research on Computer Mediated CommunicationNew York: Information Science Reference, pp. 917-933.

2007. (with P K W Tan and A K L Chiang) Analyzing personal weblogs in Singapore English: the WMatrix approach, in  eVariEng (Journal of the Research Unit for Variation, Contacts, and Change in English), vol 2: Towards Multimedia in Corpus Studies.  Finland: University of Helsinki. 

Reprint of [Asian or Western realities? Collocations in Singaporean-Malaysian English, in Kirk J M (ed) (2000) Corpora Galore: Analyses and Techniques in Describing English, Amsterdam: Rodopi, pp. 73-89] in Teubert W and R Krishnamurthy (eds) Corpus Linguistics: Critical Concepts in LinguisticsLondon: Routledge, 194-212.

(with P K W Tan and A K L Chiang) Mapping undergraduate culture using the personal blog: a corpus-based approach.  Paper presented at Corpus Linguistics 2007, Centre for Corpus Research, Birmingham University.

(with P K W Tan and A K L Chiang) World Englishes or English as a lingua franca? A view from the perspective of non-Anglo Englishes, in Rubdy R and M Saraceni (eds) English in the World: Global Rules, Global Roles. United Kingdom: Continuum, 84-94.

(with P K W Tan and A K L Chiang) Signalling spokenness in personal advertisements on the Web: the case of ESL countries in South East Asia, in Aijmer K, and B Altenberg: Advances in Corpus Linguistics, Amsterdam: Rodopi, 151-167.

(with P K W Tan and A K L Chiang) "Texting" or "SMS", "gurls" or "gers": ranking of forms in computer-mediated communication as markers of social and cultural identities. Paper presented at the 25th conference of the International Computer Archive of Modern and Medieval English, 19-23 May 2004, Verona, Italy.

(with P K W Tan and A K L Chiang). Pragmatic particles in computer-mediated communication: the case of Internet Relay Chat in Singapore, in Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Speech, Writing and Context: Exploring Interdisciplinary Perspectives, Kansai Gaidai Univ: Intercultural Research Institute, 179-184.

(with H Hong) NPs as content indicators of variation across speech and writing, in Proceedings of the XVII International Congress of Linguists, Prague: Centre for Computational Linguistics. (Session on Computational Linguistics and Techniques for Language Description, CD-ROM, 1-13).

Aspects of computer-mediated communication for research in corpus linguistics, in Peters P, P Collins & A Smith (eds) New Frontiers of Corpus Research, Amsterdam-New York: Rodopi, 91-104.

From Shakespeare to Hungarian EFL writing: using WWW corpora to motivate student learning, in Tan M (ed) Corpus Studies in Language Education, Thailand: Institute of English Language Education, Assumption University, 163-177.

Computer corpus evidence and the teaching of English in Singapore, in Low E L & S C Teng (eds) The Teaching and Use of Standard English, Singapore: Singapore Association for Applied Linguistics, 49-58.

2001a. Upholding standards or passively observing language: Corpus evidence and the Concentric Circles Model, in Ooi V B Y (ed) Evolving Identities: The English Language in Singapore and Malaysia, Singapore: Times Academic Press, 168-83.

2001b. Globalising Singaporean-Malaysian English in an inclusive learner's dictionary, in Moore B (ed) Who's Centric Now? The State of Postcolonial Englishes, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 95-101.

Investigating and teaching genres on the World Wide Web, in Ghadessy M, Henry A, and Roseberry R (eds) Small Corpus Studies and ELT: Theory and Practice, Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 175-203. 

Asian or Western realities? Collocations in Singaporean-Malaysian English, in Kirk J M (ed) Corpora Galore: Analyses and Techniques in Describing English, Amsterdam: Rodopi, 73-89. 

'Language games' on the World Wide Web: Analysing the language of electronic gaming, in Heffer, C. and Sauntson, H. (eds) Words in Context: A Tribute to John Sinclair on his Retirement, Birmingham: ELR Discourse Analysis Monograph No. 18, 110-19  [CD-ROM publication]

Issues and directions for English language research in Singapore, in Chua B H (ed) Singapore Studies II: Critical Surveys of the Humanities and Social Sciences, Singapore University Press & Centre for Advanced Studies, 69-83. 

The implications of using nativised language corpora for lexicography, in Allison D et al (eds), Text in Education and Society, Singapore University Press & World Scientific, 262-73.

Singapore as an intelligent island: the corpus revolution and multimedia language education, in Proceedings of the 38th Conference of the Language Laboratory Association of Japan, pp. 202-5. (Panelist, symposium on "Foreign Language Education and Technology in Asia: Interacting in Harmony with Software and Hardware", Fukuoka, Japan, Aug 4-6, 1998).

Analysing the Singapore ICE corpus for lexicographic evidence, in Ljung M (ed) Corpus-based Studies in English, Amsterdam: Rodopi, 245-59.

Corpus-based language modelling from a computational lexical perspective, in Powell M J (ed), The 21st Linguistic Association of Canada and the United States (LACUS) Forum, 493-511.

Book Publications

(with A Pakir, I Talib, and P Tan) Perspectives in Lexicography: Asia and beyond. Israel: K Dictionaries.

(ed) (with A Pakir, I Talib, L Tan, P Tan, and Y Tan) Words In Asian Cultural Contexts : Proceedings Of The 4th Asialex Conference (1-3 June 2005, M Hotel, Singapore).

(ed) Evolving Identities: The English Language in Singapore and Malaysia, Singapore: Times Academic Press. 232 pages.

Computer Corpus Lexicography (one of 6 lead titles in the EUP world series in empirical linguistics). 254 pages.  A brief description of CCLA balanced review by Katsoyannou & Economou (1999), Journal of Applied LinguisticsA response to Pieter de Haan's comments on CCL.

Co-Chief Editor, Chief Editorial Consultant & Project Leader, Times-Chambers Essential English Dictionary (2nd edition), the first dictionary with the NUS emblem and published jointly between Chambers-Harrap PLC and Times Media Pte Ltd (now Marshall Cavendish International (Singapore) Pte Ltd)  Edited by Elaine Higgleton and Vincent Ooi, this dictionary is a labour of love by a team that includes Anne Seaton, Vincent Ooi, Lubna Alsagoff, Bao Zhiming, Peter K W Tan, and Lionel Wee. This dictionary is unique in being the first dictionary to use my Concentric Circles Model to show how Singaporean and Malaysian English can be incorporated into a standard English dictionary, without compromising international intelligibility and standards.  1216 pages. (Read about Linguistic Hybridity by George Landow). Also, read An Interview with Lingua Franca, Radio National Australia.

Invited Book Reviews

2014. Review of Howard Jackson (ed) The Bloomsbury Companion to Lexicography in Lexicography:  Journal of Asialex (2014): 1, 123-125.

Review of Ahmad S Peyawary The Core Vocabulary of International English: A Corpus Approach.  (Bergen: The Humanities Information Technologies Research Programme), in English World -Wide (A Journal of Varieties of English), Vol. 23, 2, 147-151.

Review of Elena Tognini-Bonelli Corpus Linguistics at Work (Amsterdam: John Benjamins), in Literary and Linguistic Computing(Journal of the Association for Literary and Linguistic Computing), Vol 17, 2, 263-266.

Review of Graeme Kennedy (1998) An Introduction to Corpus Linguistics (London & New York: Longman), in Computational Linguistics, Vol. 25, 2, 299-301.

The following sites give you an idea of how the Web advances the fields of lexicology and lexicography, corpus linguistics, linguistic computing, learning and IT.  Please note that this list is not exhaustive, and the websites listed here are meant to get you started on an exciting voyage of discovery! :) 

Lexicology, Lexicography, and English dictionaries online



Reference dictionaries

OneLook Dictionary (link to various dictionaries)

Oxford Dictionaries Online

Difference between OED and

Glossary of Linguistic Terms (based on the Random House Dictionary, AmE)

Merriam-Webster Online (AmE)

The Free Dictionary

Urban Dictionary (Dictionary 'with an attitude') Reverse Dictionary

OneLook Reverse Dictionary

Your (dictionaries, thesauri, multilingual resources)

Macmillan Dictionary (reference/learner; BrE, AmE)

Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary (BrE)             

Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary (AmE)

First U.S. Learner's Dictionary (AmE)

Longman Web Dictionary (BrE, AmE)

Cambridge International Dictionary of English (CIDE, or 'sai-di')  (BrE)

Linguistic terms explained (frightened of the jargon that linguists use? Consult the following:)

Linguistic Glossary (Lexicon of specialized linguistic terms by the Summer Institute of Linguistics)

Lexicon of Linguistics (Utrecht's University Linguists explain the meaning of linguistic terms)

Some leading centres for the study of the lexicon

Australian National Dictionary Centre (ANDC Schools Dictionary Project -- 
It's easy to make a dictionary!)

The FrameNet Project (at UC, Berkeley)

Corpus Linguistics and Computational Linguistics

Corpus linguistics

Corpus of Contemporary American English (COCA)

Corpus of Global Web-based English (GloWbe)


WordSmith Tools

AntConc (Antconc Tutorials-Youtube)

Martin Weisser's Corpus-based Linguistics Links

Lancaster University's Centre for Computer Research on Language

University of Birmingham Centre for Corpus Research

ICE - International Corpus of English

Martin Weisser's Corpus-based Linguistics Links

Association for Computational Linguistics (the definitive site for computational linguistics)

Natural Language Software Registry  (A select list of linguistic software tools)